The majority of cannabis users can attest to having experienced a common phenomenon known as cottonmouth. At the peak of the “high” the following symptoms usually emerge:
- an insatiable thirst
- reduced ability to swallow
- an overwhelming feeling of ‘‘mouth drought”
The medical term for this common sensation is xerostomia, referring to decreased saliva from the salivary glands in the mouth.
Homeostasis is a recurring word often used to describe the overall result of various biomolecular mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Homeostasis refers to the tendency toward maintaining stable conditions necessary for survival. Another hit for the ECS is the regulation of saliva production. Saliva is well known to be a dependent factor in the homeostasis and maintenance of overall oral health. The synergistic relationship between oral health and overall wellness is well acknowledged through numerous studies. 1
Why saliva is important
protects the tissues of the mouth by providing the lubrication necessary for chewing and swallowing. It dilutes consumed sugars, has antimicrobial and cleansing properties, neutralizes acid production and controls the pH of plaque. One percent of saliva is made up of a variety of minerals and proteins that protect tooth enamel, prevent tooth decay and gum disease, and repairs damaged oral tissue. 2
Production of this vital spit fluid and its proteins are mainly under autonomic control. The autonomic nervous system is a regulatory system, working “automatically” or without conscious effort to regulate bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination and sexual arousal. It is also the underlying mechanism for the known fight-or-flight response. 3
The science behind dry mouth: is it dangerous?
Cottonmouth, aka xerostomia, brought on by cannabis use seems to be the consequence of anticholinergic effects. Acetylcholine is the principal neurotransmitter, or chemical messenger released by autonomic neurons. These molecules are used by the nervous system to transmit messages between neurons or from neurons to muscles. Prescription drugs referred to as anticholinergics inhibit the actions of acetylcholine.
This inhibition will have differing effects depending on the location. Typical symptoms of inhibited acetylcholine, aka anticholinergic effects, include dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, bowel obstruction, dilated pupils, blurred vision, increased heart rate, and decreased sweating, impaired concentration, confusion, attention deficit, and memory impairment. 4 5
Cottonmouth is quite a common side effect among cannabis users but how dangerous is it really? In short, it’s not really dangerous but frequent and persistent cottonmouth alongside poor dental hygiene can cause problems. For example:
- a constantly dry mouth lacking proper lubrication from spit harbors a breeding ground for unflushed bacteria
- oral problems can develop from the promotion of stagnant bacteria causing increased plaque, leading to cavities or gum disease
- excessive oral dryness can also lead to trouble swallowing, mouth sores, chapped or cracking of the lips 6
Tips for avoiding cottonmouth when smoking cannabis
You can mostly prevent drying of your mouth by staying adequately hydrated. Here are some things you can do before smoking cannabis if you experience cottonmouth:
- drink plenty of water
- void highly caffeinated drinks, alcohol, and tobacco
- have sugarless gum or hard candy on hand to help stimulate spit flow
If cottonmouth becomes a true annoyance you could try the following in order to prevent it further:
- over-the-counter saliva substitutes or mouthwash; look for products containing xylitol
- be wary of using cannabis alongside certain allergy medicine, as antihistamines and decongestants can worsen anticholinergic effects
- be sure to routinely perform adequate oral hygiene with brushing and flossing
- if these tips fail to alleviate your symptoms and you begin to notice habitually bad breath, it may be time to talk with your doctor or dentist
In summary, cannabis can sometimes cause cottonmouth, aka xerostomia, and this experience may be the result of various mechanisms and factors implicating CB1 and CB2 receptors.
A reduction in acetylcholine can lead to reduced blood flow to spit-producing glands, thereby making your mouth dry. Although cottonmouth is not as serious, persistent dry mouth can lead to oral complications. Water is essential to most bodily functions and is imperative before and during cannabis use.